The Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Extracted from the Human Adipocytes on Differentiation, Scaffolding and Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) in Athymic Rats with Skull Ossification Defects

Adult stem cells are currently being applied in diverse fields because of their multi-potency. Of particular note, the use of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell lines are advantageous as it is relatively easier to extract a sufficient amount thereof and they have been confirmed to differentiate into various types of tissue. For this reason, there has recently been active research on these stem cells. In the case of bone defects observed in the field of plastic surgery, progressive advances in patient care and treatment can be made and normal osseous tissue need not be sacrificed if it becomes possible to treat such defects by cell therapy. However, in most cases of bone defect treatment using stem cells, in vitro manipulation were performed with undifferentiated stem cells, which were differentiated into specific types of cells through the use of various additives and artificial manipulation under lab conditions. This means that there are a wide range of adverse events that can potentially occur, and this makes it difficult for clinical application. Accordingly, this study was conducted with the aim of attempting cell therapy using undifferentiated stem cells. In order to maximize the differentiation into osteocytes and the effectiveness of ossification, scaffolding and a growth factor were used in combination to induce the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells into osteocytes. In this study, human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were grafted into a scaffolding inside the wound made in the cranium of athymic rats, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which is a growth factor, were used to maximize the effectiveness. Continuous observations and comparisons of the ossification progress in the area of bone defect were made based on continuous measurements of bone density using bone densitometer as well as through histological methods and immunofluorescent staining. The expression of the mRNAs of ostepontin, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which are ossification indices for the stem cells transplanted using a human primer. The results showed not only osteoacusis caused by the osteoblasts in the area around the bone defect, but also that undifferentiated human tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells transplanted with a scaffolding differentiated into osteocytes in the rats and resulted in bone generation in the area of bone defect in the cranium of athymic rats. Also, BMP-2, when administered with the transplantation of stem cells and scaffolding, helped promote the ossification process. These results are deemed to show the possibility for clinical application of the cell therapy with the addition of a growth factor to minimize in vitro manipulation of stem cells in the lab, which can cause problems in clinical applications, and to induce and maximize the effect of in vivo differentiation. This also serves as a case that presents how the three factors of tissue engineering must be combined for a mutually enhancing effect.

Leave a reply